How The Soviet New Economic Policy Turned Into Collectivization

In the 1920s the Soviet Union retreated from socialist values in favor of a free market. Free trade was permitted, and as War Communism ended, the Soviet government no longer forcefully requisitioned grain from the peasants. This all came crashing down after 1928 when the period of collectivization began, and the Soviet Union dived into … Read more

Martin Heidegger and Max Planck in Nazi Germany

Martin Heidegger in Nazi Germany

Controversy over persons like Max Planck and Martin Heidegger’s roles in Nazi Germany has permeated various historical writings. Were they willingly cooperating with the regime or covertly resisting it from the inside? The terms “collaboration” and “resistance” have been used to describe their actions, but neither terms are entirely adequate. Instead, I find words such … Read more